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It remains strategically important, with half the world's seaborne trade passing through the strait. The sovereignty of Gibraltar is a point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations because Spain asserts a claim to the territory.
Evidence of Neanderthal habitation in Gibraltar from around 50, years ago has been discovered at Gorham's Cave. Stone tools, ancient hearths and animal bones dating from around 40, years ago to about 5, years ago have been found in deposits left in Gorham's Cave.
During ancient times, Gibraltar was regarded by the peoples of the Mediterranean as a place of religious and symbolic importance. The Phoenicians were present for several centuries since around BC, apparently using Gorham's Cave as a shrine to the genius loci ,  as did the Carthaginians and Romans after them.
Gibraltar was known as Mons Calpe , a name perhaps of Phoenician origin. There is no known archaeological evidence of permanent settlements from the ancient period.
After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire , Gibraltar came briefly under the control of the Vandals , who crossed into Africa at the invitation of Boniface , the Count or commander of the territory.
The area later formed part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania for almost years, from until AD.
Following a raid in , a predominantly Berber army under the command of Tariq ibn Ziyad crossed from North Africa in April and landed somewhere in the vicinity of Gibraltar though most likely not in the bay or at the Rock itself.
In the Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mu'min ordered that a permanent settlement, including a castle, be built. It received the name of Medinat al-Fath City of the Victory.
From onwards, the town was fought over and captured by the Nasrids of Granada in and , the Marinids of Morocco in and and the kings of Castile in Subsequently, most of the population left the town with many settling nearby.
Unsuccessful attempts by Spanish monarchs to regain Gibraltar were made with the siege of and again with the Great Siege of Gibraltar to , during the American War of Independence.
After the destructive Great Siege, the town was almost entirely rebuilt. Boschetti is regarded as having been responsible for setting the old town's style, described by Claire Montado, chief executive of the Gibraltar Heritage Trust, as "military-ordnance-style arched doorways, Italianate stucco relief, Genoese shutters, English Regency ironwork balconies, Spanish stained glass and Georgian sash and casement windows.
During the Napoleonic Wars Gibraltar became a key base for the Royal Navy and played an important role leading up to the Battle of Trafalgar 21 October Its strategic location made it a key base during the Crimean War of — In the 18th century, the peacetime military garrison fluctuated in numbers from a minimum of 1, to a maximum of 5, The first half of the 19th century saw a significant increase of population to more than 17, in , as people from Britain and all around the Mediterranean — Italian, Portuguese, Maltese, Jewish and French — took up residence in the town.
Its strategic value increased with the opening of the Suez Canal , as it lay on the sea route between the UK and the British Empire east of Suez.
In the later 19th century, major investments were made to improve the fortifications and the port.
The Rock was strengthened as a fortress. On 18 July , the Vichy French air force attacked Gibraltar in retaliation for the British bombing of the Vichy navy.
The naval base and the ships based there played a key role in the provisioning and supply of the island of Malta during its long siege.
As well as frequent short runs, known as "Club Runs", towards Malta to fly off aircraft reinforcements initially Hurricanes , but later, notably from the USN aircraft carrier Wasp , Spitfires , the critical Operation Pedestal convoy was run from Gibraltar in August This resupplied the island at a critical time in the face of concentrated air attacks from German and Italian forces.
In the s, Franco renewed Spain's claim to sovereignty over Gibraltar and restricted movement between Gibraltar and Spain.
Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain under British sovereignty in the Gibraltar sovereignty referendum , which led to the passing of the Gibraltar Constitution Order in In response, Spain completely closed the border with Gibraltar and severed all communication links.
In the early s, Britain and Spain were in negotiations over a potential agreement that would see them sharing sovereignty over Gibraltar.
A process of tripartite negotiations started in between Spain, Gibraltar and the UK, ending some restrictions and dealing with disputes in some specific areas such as air movements, customs procedures, telecommunications, pensions and cultural exchange.
Under its current constitution , Gibraltar has almost complete internal self-governance through a parliament    elected for a term of up to four years.
The unicameral parliament presently consists of 17 elected members, and the Speaker who is not elected, but appointed by a resolution of the parliament.
The governor enacts day-to-day matters on the advice of the Gibraltar Parliament, but is responsible to the British government in respect of defence, foreign policy, internal security and general good governance.
Judicial and other appointments are made on behalf of the monarch in consultation with the head of the elected government.
The PDP was a new party, formed in and fielded candidates in the election, but none were elected.
All local political parties oppose any transfer of sovereignty to Spain, instead supporting self-determination.
The main UK opposition parties also support this policy, and it is British government policy not to engage in talks about the sovereignty of Gibraltar without the consent of the people of Gibraltar.
Gibraltar was part of the European Union , having joined through the European Communities Act UK , which gave effect to the Treaty of Accession , as a dependent territory of the United Kingdom under what was then article 4 of the Treaty Establishing the European Community covering special member state territories , with exemption from some areas such as the European Union Customs Union , Common Agricultural Policy and the Schengen Area.
After a year campaign for the right to vote in European elections , since the people of Gibraltar have participated in elections for the European Parliament as part of the South West England constituency.
Gibraltar was nominated to be included on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories by the United Kingdom when the list was created in  and has been listed ever since.
Gibraltar is not a member of the Commonwealth of Nations in its own right and is represented by the United Kingdom but was granted Associate Membership of the Commonwealth Foundation in Gibraltar has competed in the Commonwealth Games since Gibraltar's territory covers 6.
The shoreline measures 12 kilometres 7. There are two coasts "Sides" of Gibraltar: the East Side, which contains the settlements of Sandy Bay and Catalan Bay ; and the Westside , where the vast majority of the population lives.
Gibraltar has no administrative divisions but is divided into seven Major Residential Areas. Having negligible natural resources and few natural freshwater resources, limited to natural wells in the north, until recently Gibraltar used large concrete or natural rock water catchments to collect rainwater.
Fresh water from the boreholes is nowadays supplemented by two desalination plants: a reverse osmosis plant, constructed in a tunnel within the rock, and a multi-stage flash distillation plant at North Mole.
It contains many tunnelled roads, most of which are still operated by the military and closed to the general public.
Gibraltar has a Mediterranean climate Köppen climate classification Csa ,   with mild, rainy winters and warm, dry summers.
As is the case for nearby Algeciras and Tarifa , summers are significantly cooler and annual temperature more constant than other cities on the southern coast of the Iberian peninsula because of its position on the Strait of Gibraltar.
Rain occurs mainly in winter, with summer being generally dry. In the coldest month, January, the high temperature averages Over different species of flowering plants grow on the Rock.
Gibraltar is the only place in Europe where the Gibraltar candytuft Iberis gibraltarica is found growing in the wild; the plant is otherwise native to North Africa.
It is the symbol of the Upper Rock nature reserve. Olive and pine trees are among the most common of those growing around the Rock. Most of the Rock's upper area is covered by a nature reserve which is home to around Barbary macaques , the famous "apes" of Gibraltar, which are actually monkeys.
These are the only wild apes or monkeys found in Europe. Three-quarters of the world population live in the Middle Atlas mountains of Morocco.
Recent genetic studies and historical documents point to their presence on the Rock before its capture by the British , having possibly been introduced during the Islamic period.
A superstition analogous to that of the ravens at the Tower of London states that if the apes ever leave, so will the British.
In , British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was so concerned about the dwindling population of apes that he sent a message to the Colonial Secretary requesting that something be done about the situation.
Other mammals found in Gibraltar include rabbits, foxes and bats. Dolphins and whales are frequently seen in the Bay of Gibraltar.
Migrating birds are very common and Gibraltar is home to the only Barbary partridges found on the European continent. In , Graham Watson, Gibraltar's MEP , highlighted conservationists ' fears that urban development , tourism and invasive plant species were threatening Gibraltar's own plants as well as birds and bat species.
In May a report by the World Health Organization showed that Gibraltar had the worst air quality in any British territory. The report concentrated on PM10 and PM2.
The British military traditionally dominated Gibraltar's economy , with the naval dockyard providing the bulk of economic activity.
This, however, has diminished over the last 20 years, and is estimated to account for only 7 percent of the local economy, compared to over 60 percent in Today, Gibraltar's economy is dominated by four main sectors: financial services , online gambling , shipping, and tourism, which includes duty-free retail sales to visitors.
Gibraltar's labour market shows an extremely low unemployment rate of around 1 percent. In the early s, many bookmakers and online gaming operators moved to Gibraltar to benefit from operating in a regulated jurisdiction with a favourable corporate tax regime.
This corporate tax regime for non-resident controlled companies was phased out by January and replaced by a still favourable fixed corporate tax rate of 10 percent.
Tourism is also a significant industry. Gibraltar is a popular port for cruise ships and attracts day visitors from resorts in Spain.
The Rock is a popular tourist attraction, particularly among British tourists and residents in the southern coast of Spain.
It is also a popular shopping destination, and all goods and services are VAT free, but may be subject to Gibraltar taxes.
Branches and franchises of international retailers such as Tommy Hilfiger and Sunglass Hut are also present in Gibraltar, as is the Spanish clothing company Mango.
A number of British and international banks have operations based in Gibraltar. Jyske Bank claims to be the oldest bank in the country, based on Jyske's acquisition in of Banco Galliano , which began operations in Gibraltar in In , Gibraltar enacted the Companies Taxation and Concessions Ordinance now an Act , which provided for special tax treatment for international business.
Gibraltar has several attractive attributes as a financial centre , including a common law legal system and access to the EU single market in financial services.
The Financial Services Commission FSC ,  which was established by an ordinance in now an Act that took effect in , regulates the finance sector.
As of [update] , Gibraltar has 0. The currency of Gibraltar is the Gibraltar pound , issued by the Government of Gibraltar under the terms of the Currency Notes Act.
These banknotes are legal tender in Gibraltar alongside Bank of England banknotes. Unofficially, most retail outlets in Gibraltar accept the euro , though some payphones and the Royal Gibraltar Post Office , along with all other government offices, do not.
The growing demand for space is being increasingly met by land reclamation ; reclaimed land currently comprises approximately one tenth of the territory's total area.
The demographics of Gibraltar reflect the many European and other economic migrants who came to the Rock over years ago, after almost all of the Spanish population left in The official language of Gibraltar is English, and is used by the government and in schools.
Most locals are bilingual , also speaking Spanish. However, because of the varied mix of ethnic groups which reside there, other languages are also spoken on the Rock.
Berber and Arabic are spoken by the Moroccan community, as are Hindi and Sindhi by the Indian community. Maltese is spoken by some families of Maltese descent.
Llanito also often involves code-switching to English and Spanish. Gibraltarians often call themselves Llanitos.
According to the census, approximately Other Christian denominations include the Church of England 7. Several of these congregations are represented by the Gibraltar Evangelical Alliance.
The third religion in size is Islam 3. There are four functioning Orthodox synagogues in Gibraltar and several kosher establishments.
Education in Gibraltar generally follows the English model , operating within a three tier system. Gibraltar has 15 state schools , two private schools and a college of further education, Gibraltar College.
Government secondary schools are Bayside Comprehensive School for boys and Westside School for girls, and Prior Park School Gibraltar is an independent coeducational secondary school.
All Gibraltarian students used to follow the UK student loans procedure , applying for a loan from the Student Loans Company which was then reimbursed in full by the Government of Gibraltar.
In August , this system was replaced by the direct payment by the government of grants and tuition fees. The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians continue their studies at university level.
All Gibraltarians are entitled to health care in public wards and clinics at St Bernard's Hospital and primary health care centre.
All other British citizens are also entitled to free-of-charge treatment on the Rock on presentation of a valid British passport during stays of up to 30 days.
Dental treatment and prescribed medicines are free of charge for Gibraltarian students and pensioners. Some specialist care is provided by visiting consultants and in UK and Spanish hospitals.
First-line medical and nursing services are provided at the Primary Care Centre, which has 16 GPs, with more specialised services available at St Bernard's Hospital , a bed civilian hospital opened in Psychiatric care is provided by King George V Hospital.
As of the authority was responsible for the health of some 27, individuals. The culture of Gibraltar reflects Gibraltarians' diverse origins.
While there are Spanish mostly from nearby Andalusia and British influences, the ethnic origins of most Gibraltarians are not confined to these ethnicities.
Other ethnicities include Genoese , Maltese , Portuguese , and German. British influence remains strong, with English being the language of government, commerce, education and the media.
Gibraltar's first sovereignty referendum is celebrated annually on Gibraltar National Day 10 September. It is a public holiday, during which most Gibraltarians dress in their national colours of red and white.
Until , the tradition had been to also release 30, similarly coloured balloons, which represented the people of Gibraltar.
However, this tradition has now been ended because of the threat that it poses to wildlife, particularly marine. The radio service is also internet-streamed.
Special events and the daily news bulletin are streamed in video. The other local radio service is operated by the British Forces Broadcasting Service which also provides a limited cable television network to HM Forces.
The largest and most frequently published newspaper is the Gibraltar Chronicle , Gibraltar's oldest established daily newspaper and the world's second oldest English language newspaper to have been in print continuously  with daily editions six days a week.
Native Gibraltarians have produced some literature of note. Throughout the s and s, several anthologies of poetry were published by Leopoldo Sanguinetti , Albert Joseph Patron and Alberto Pizzarello.
Trino Cruz is a bilingual poet originally writing English but now mainly in Spanish, who also translates Maghreb poetry.
Mary Chiappe and Sam Benady have also published a series of detective books centred on the character of the nineteenth-century Gibraltarian sleuth Bresciano.
Gibraltarian cuisine is the result of a long relationship between the Andalusian Spaniards and the British, as well as the many foreigners who made Gibraltar their home over the past three centuries.
This marriage of tastes has given Gibraltar an eclectic mix of Mediterranean and British cuisine. Profiteroles , a French choux pastry ball with a sweet filling of whipped cream, is considered to be Gibraltar's national dish.
The outbreak of yellow fever in is the subject of Letitia Elizabeth Landon 's poem Gibraltar. Scene During the Plague. She published two further poetical illustrations on Gibraltar the following year, Gibraltar—from the Sea.
In , there were 18 Gibraltar sports associations with official recognition from their respective international governing bodies.
Others have submitted applications for recognition which are being considered. The government supports the many sporting associations financially.
Gibraltar also competes in the bi-annual Island Games , which it hosted in and again in Football is a popular sport in Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar Football Association applied for full membership of UEFA , but their bid was turned down in in a contentious decision.
Cricket enjoys popularity in Gibraltar. Rugby union is fairly popular and one of the fastest growing team sports.
Gibraltar Rugby Football Union applied for membership of Europe's governing body for rugby.
Gibraltar is believed to be the birthplace of the rugby variant Tag Rugby. Darts is also a popular sport, with the Gibraltar Darts Association a full member of World Darts Federation since running leagues and other regular tournaments.
Gibraltar has a digital telephone exchange supported by a fibre optic and copper infrastructure; the telephone operator Gibtelecom also operates a GSM network.
Internet connectivity is available across the fixed network. Gibraltar's top-level domain code is. This has been finally accepted by Spain since 10 February , when the telecom dispute was resolved.
Within Gibraltar, the main form of transport is the car. Motorcycles are also very popular and there is a good modern bus service. There is a Gibraltar Cable Car that runs from ground level to the top of the Rock, with an intermediate station at Apes' Den.
Restrictions on transport introduced by Spanish dictator Francisco Franco closed the land frontier in and also prohibited any air or ferry connections.
In , the land border was reopened. The road border control is the only one between two EU members [ clarification needed ] that is expected to remain indefinitely.
Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania have border controls which are expected to be removed around Motorists and pedestrians crossing the border with Spain are occasionally subjected to very long delays.
GB Airways operated a service between Gibraltar and London and other cities for many years. The airline initially flew under the name "Gibraltar Airways".
In , and in anticipation of service to cities outside the UK, Gibraltar Airways changed its name to GB Airways with the belief that a new name would incur fewer political problems.
As a franchise, the airline operated flights in full British Airways livery. EasyJet have since added Bristol and Manchester and also operated flights to Liverpool between and Until entering administration in October , Monarch Airlines operated the largest number of flights between the United Kingdom and Gibraltar, with scheduled services between Gibraltar and Luton , London Gatwick , Birmingham and Manchester.
The Spanish national airline , Iberia , operated a daily service to Madrid which ceased for lack of demand. Gibraltar International Airport is unusual not only because of its proximity to the city centre resulting in the airport terminal being within walking distance of much of Gibraltar but also because the runway intersects Winston Churchill Avenue , the main north—south street, requiring movable barricades to close when aircraft land or depart.
New roads and a tunnel, which will end the need to stop road traffic when aircraft use the runway, were planned to coincide with the building of a new airport terminal building with an originally estimated completion date of ,   although it has not been completed because of delays.
In addition, the Algeciras Heliport across the bay offers scheduled services to Ceuta. Gibraltar Cruise Terminal receives a large number of visits from cruise ships.
The Strait of Gibraltar is one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world. Passenger and cargo ships anchor in the Gibraltar Harbour.
Also, a ferry links Gibraltar with Tangier in Morocco. The ferry between Gibraltar and Algeciras , which had been halted in when Franco severed communications with Gibraltar, was finally reopened on 16 December , served by the Spanish company Transcoma.
Water supply and sanitation in Gibraltar have been major concerns for its inhabitants throughout its history.
There are no rivers, streams, or large bodies of water on the peninsula. Gibraltar's water supply was formerly provided by a combination of an aqueduct, wells, and the use of cisterns, barrels and earthenware pots to capture rainwater.
This became increasingly inadequate as Gibraltar's population grew in the 18th and 19th centuries and lethal diseases such as cholera and yellow fever began to spread.
In the late 19th century, a Sanitary Commission instigated major improvements which saw the introduction of large-scale desalination and the use of giant water catchments covering over 2.
Today Gibraltar's supply of drinking water comes entirely from desalination , with a separate supply of saltwater for sanitary purposes.
Both supplies are delivered from huge underground reservoirs excavated under the Rock of Gibraltar. Outside the United Kingdom, the RGP is the oldest police force of the former British Empire , formed shortly after the creation of London's Metropolitan Police in when Gibraltar was declared a crown colony on 25 June In general, the Gibraltar force follows British police models in its dress and its mostly male constables and sergeants on foot patrol wear the traditional custodian helmet , the headgear of the British "bobby on the beat".
The helmet is traditionally made of cork covered outside by felt or serge -like material that matches the tunic.
The vehicles also appear virtually identical to typical UK police vehicles, but are left hand drive.
The force, whose name received the prefix "Royal" in , currently numbers over officers divided into a number of units. These include the CID , drug squad, special branch , firearms, scene of crime examiners , traffic, marine and operations units, sections or departments.
Gibraltar's defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom tri-services British Forces Gibraltar.
In January , the Ministry of Defence announced that the private company Serco would provide services to the base. The announcement resulted in the affected trade unions striking.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the British Overseas Territory. For other uses, see Gibraltar disambiguation.
British Overseas Territory. British Overseas Territory in United Kingdom. Coat of arms. English Andalusian Spanish Llanito. Gibraltarian British Maghrebis.
Gibraltarian Llanito colloquial. Main article: History of Gibraltar. Main article: Politics of Gibraltar. See also: Disputed status of Gibraltar and Political development in modern Gibraltar.
Places adjacent to Gibraltar. Main article: Climate of Gibraltar. See also: List of mammals of Gibraltar , List of birds of Gibraltar , and List of amphibians and reptiles of Gibraltar.
Main article: Economy of Gibraltar. Main article: Demographics of Gibraltar. See also: Gibraltarian people. Main article: Languages of Gibraltar.
Percentage of population by religion  Percentage Roman Catholic. Main article: Education in Gibraltar. Main article: Culture of Gibraltar.
Migratory birds are common, and Gibraltar is the home of the only specimens of Barbary partridge in Europe. About four-fifths of the population are Gibraltarians, which includes those born in Gibraltar before and their descendants, as well as the spouses of Gibraltarians.
The remainder are resident aliens and the families of British military personnel. Moroccans and Indians predominate among the resident aliens.
About four-fifths of Gibraltarians are Roman Catholic. The small Jewish community is of Sephardic descent.
English is the official language of government and education, though most Gibraltarians are bilingual in English and Spanish, and many speak an English dialect known as Yanito Llanito , which is influenced by Spanish, Genoese, and Hebrew.
Because of lack of space on the peninsula, there is no agriculture. There is a small amount of light industry—tobacco, beverages, canning—but the main sources of income are the provisioning of ships and military personnel, tourism, and the re-export trade.
Tourism was stimulated through the large-scale expansion of hotel and beach facilities and gambling casinos. The port facilities occupy most of the western shore and a portion of land reclaimed from the sea.
The United Kingdom supplies a significant amount of development aid. Principal expenditures include social services, public works , and municipal services.
The monetary unit is the Gibraltar pound. Gibraltar has an international airport, and regular flights link the territory to London , Tangier, and many other destinations.
The peninsula has a road system and a system of tunnels within the Rock for vehicular traffic. A cable car ascends to the central summit of the ridge.
As the United Kingdom is not party to the Schengen Agreement , the crossing between La Linea and Gibraltar is one of the few remaining controlled internal borders in western Europe.
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